Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a kind of endogenous tissue engineering technique that can regenerate new bone by the bone callus healing mechanism. In recent years, as a large number of basic researches and clinical application of DO accumulated, this technique shows broad application prospect in the craniomaxillofacial and plastic surgery, such as defect reconstruction after tumor resections and alveolus endosseous implant restoration. Study on signaling pathways in DO to explore the molecular mechanism are the key points to promote bone formation and mineralization in the DO area, and shorten the treatment cycle of patients with various diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to explore these signaling pathways in DO and mutual relation and regulation of cell mechanics signaling effect. This paper reviews the recent researches on the signaling pathways of DO.